Schools started distance learning in Mexico, one of the countries that has been hardest hit by the pandemic (in fourth place for the number of contagions). Since August 24th, 2020, 30 million pupils are able to follow programmes on air from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. on 16 channels transmitted by four TV broadcasters: Televisa, TV Azteca, Grupo Imagen and Grupo Multimedios. All those who do not have access to television will be able to follow the lessons on the radio and study from books. Over 4,550 TV programmes (640 in indigenous languages) will be transmitted. The programmes do not include entertainment , but follow the school syllabus and pupils will be tested on the contents. Educational programmes do not have advertising. Here is the article with details from the daily newspaper, El Universal.
Radio stations in France have also been hit hard by the impact of Covid-19 according to SIRTI, the union of independent radio stations, that has been monitoring the situation by carrying out monthly surveys. Up to April 2020 75% of the radio stations had not applied for the advantages of the ‘partial employment’ scheme (teleworking is not viable for 50% of the staff) because of the bureaucratic procedures being too complicated according to 39% of the respondents. No one had been dismissed (the 112 members in the survey answered) but if the crisis was to last longer, 55% planned to apply for aid from the solidarity fund that has been set up for businesses. More than half of the respondents did not have the resources to face further financial difficulty. After recording a drop of 56% in advertising in March (-32% for the national radio stations) a collapse was foreseen in April: -78% (-75% for national broadcasters).
The situation worsens
In the second survey carried out in May 2020, 72% were not confident of resuming normal business quickly, and 38% believed that the crisis could jeopardise businesses in the short term. A return to normality, according to 95% of the respondents, would not happen before the beginning of the academic year, and for 21% not before the beginning of 2021. The reason for this was because advertisers, having been hit hard during the crisis, either cancelled their advertising campaigns or negotiated lower prices. More than one out of two radio stations have had to apply for bank loans and one in three has applied for aid from the solidarity funds or other means of support.
Cutting personnel is inevitable
In order to curb the number of dismissals, radio stations are considering implementing the partial employment scheme to balance their books and 32% predict extending this policy to the end of August 2020. 36% have not renewed or have terminated fixed-term contracts and have terminated employment for those employees working probationary periods. However these measures are not sufficient and if financial aid is not available by the end of the year, each radio station will most probably have to cut between one to three jobs. Due to the crisis there will be a reduction in events and concerts. 41% of radio stations predict reducing the number of events they organise at local levels.
Requests to the government
In June 2020 SIRTI estimated that three out of four radio stations will have to cut jobs in the next few weeks. Annual revenues from advertising could be down by at least 25% (€35 million) according to a more optimistic prognosis but could drop by €45 million if investments in advertising does not restart at the beginning of the academic year. The union is asking for a waiver of the last three months payment of both the employee’s and employer’s social security contributions. This is believed to amount to €10 million which could compensate for about a third of lost revenues.
Due to the Covid-19 crisis the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media of the Russian Federation offered radio and television broadcasters the opportunity to reduce the power of their transmitters and to turn them off at night (from 24.00 to 6.00) in order to save energy. This measure is in place from 24th April to 31st December, 2020. However, very few radio stations have taken this up. They are afraid that reducing power and coverage area could cause a drop in the numbers of listeners and commercials. Advertising is already going very badly. Advertising spots have dropped by 70% and 80% in many areas of the country and the ministry believes that broadcasters’ budgets will be more than halved this year (their revenues will be down by about 8 billion rubles)
Subsidies and cuts to rent and royalties
In order to compensate for financial losses, radio stations are asking for funding as well as a lowering of RTRS fees (Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network, the company that manages transmitters), which are considered two or three times higher than those of private companies. They would also appreciate a respite with a lowering of royalties for music rights. The Deputy Minister of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media of the Russian Federation, Alexey Volin, declared that their request for subsidies was unrealistic and stated that the measures currently in place were sufficient. However, he was more open on the subject of lowering royalties which he declared was a more reasonable request.
Radio Ondas Azuayas, the historical Ecuadorian radio station with headquarters in Cuenca, permanently closed down broadcasting on June 7th, 2020, after being on air for 72 years. They used to transmit on medium wave on 1110 kHz AM from Santa Ana de los Rios de Cuenca, the third most populated city in the country and capital of the province of Azuay. Broadcasting started on April 12th, 1948. After lengthy discussions on whether to continue transmitting, the director Fausto Cardoso, in an editorial broadcast, confirmed their decision to close after a last transmission saying goodbye. The radio station was already in a financial crisis due to continuous sanctions imposed on them by Supercom (Superintendencia de Comunicacion) with the purpose of persecution. This control and censorship body against the media was created by the ex-president, Rafael Correa. It was closed in July 2019, thus cancelling the sanctions (more information can be found in this article in the Quito daily newspaper El Comercio). However, by that time it was too late and the economic crisis caused by the pandemic brought the radio station to its knees. Details can be found here.
The coronavirus pandemic has thrown the largest Christian group of radio stations in the United States into crisis.
The Salem Media Group had a business model that protected them from the highs and lows of the advertising market. In 2019 they made US$79 million by selling pastors time on their transmissions to deliver their sermons. However, they certainly did not forgo both local and national commercials that brought in $68 million. Nevertheless, the Covid-19 pandemic caused their shares to plummet to 80 cents (they were at US$8 in 2018 and US$30 in 2004). Moody’s, an American credit rating agency, has classified investments in the company as high risk.
The Salem Media Group has a network of 3,100 radio stations (100 of which they own) with a guaranteed 298 million listeners per week. The board of directors have announced a dividend block, a reduction of 10% in managers’ salaries and they are now considering personnel cuts (a total of over 1,400 employees). In this article the magazine Christianity Today outlines the situation in-depth.
It is a cry of pain and a heartfelt appeal that arises from 132 radio publishers that were surveyed on the consequences of the pandemic by Radio Reporter blog. In the midst of an emergency, they enhanced information, promoted fundraising and played a role of social cohesion. But government aid is overdue and two out of three radio stations (65%) ask for further immediate and non-refundable aid (40%). The drop in advertising, moreover, is dramatic (-73%) and painful cuts were necessary to make ends meet, dismissing collaborators and asking for layoffs for part of the staff. To assess the impact of the crisis, Radio Reporter asked specific questions on these aspects and asked if to immediately reduce business costs, it would make sense to halve the power of the transmitters: energy consumption absorbs 45% of a radio stations budget. A solution that in addition to being cost-free for the government, would improve the quality of listening (reducing interference) and reduce electromagnetic pollution. The results of the investigation are published in Italian, to facilitate consultation by publishers and listeners.
article (In italiano)
È un grido di dolore e un appello accorato quello che si leva da 132 editori radiofonici interpellati sulle conseguenze della pandemia. In piena emergenza, hanno potenziato l’informazione, promosso raccolte fondi e svolto un ruolo di coesione sociale. Ma gli aiuti del governo sono in ritardo: dopo la promessa (cancellata) di 40 milioni di euro in febbraio, ne sono stati stanziati 50 il 19 maggio nel “Decreto rilancio” (complessivi, però, per radio e tv). L’operato del governo e le regole con le quali verranno distribuiti i fondi, però, viene approvato solo da un editore: due radio su tre (65%) chiedono ulteriori aiuti, immediati e a fondo perduto (40%). Il calo della pubblicità, del resto, è drammatico (-73%) e per far quadrare i conti sono stati necessari tagli dolorosi, congedando collaboratori e chiedendo la cassa integrazione per una parte del personale. Per valutare l’impatto della crisi abbiamo posto domande precise su questi aspetti e chiesto se per ridurre immediatamente i costi aziendali avrebbe senso dimezzare le potenze dei trasmettitori: i consumi di energia assorbono il 45% delle risorse di un’emittente, quindi i risparmi sarebbero superiori a un quinto del bilancio. Una soluzione che oltre ad essere a costo zero per il governo, migliorerebbe la qualità dell’ascolto (riducendo le interferenze) e abbatterebbe l’inquinamento elettromagnetico.
Ha risposto una radio su sei
I 132 editori del sondaggio rappresentano 101 emittenti commerciali, quasi una su sei (sono 624 per l’Agcom); di queste, 72 hanno una copertura locale, 22 regionale, cinque multiregionali e due nazionale. Ci sono poi 31 stazioni comunitarie delle 343 esistenti: va considerato, però, che molte non dipendono dalla pubblicità, come molte delle 184 di area cattolica associate al Corallo e quelle si autofinanziano, come le 33 radio evangeliche censite da FMLIST-FMSCAN (database mondiale della radiotv).
Bisogna agire in fretta: c’è chi sta per gettare la spugna
Il malessere è emerso da diversi editori, mentre presentavamo l’inchiesta: erano dubbiosi, sfiduciati e di stavano seriamente valutando di chiudere. E dal sud ci è giunta una lettera che testimonia la drammaticità della situazione (che riproduciamo qui). Tagli drastici e movimenti nell’etere, del resto, già si intravedono: come interpretare la sospensione dei programmi della ligure Radio Babboleo News, che da fine maggio ripete rete principale? O l’acquisto da parte di m2o di tre canali della pugliese Radio Giulia? Ma come abbiamo spiegato in un recente articolo le frequenze si sono svalutate e cederle non è facile, a meno che siano in zone dove hanno mantenuto valore, come in Trentino Alto Adige, dove un editore ci ha detto di essere in trattative con un network per cedere l’intera rete e chiudere.
Persi i tre quarti della pubblicità (e degli incassi)
Sul crollo degli spot sono tutti d’accordo: in media è stato del 73%. A risentirne meno sono le 22 commerciali di ambito regionale (-70%) e le 31 comunitarie (-71%). Va peggio per i network e le multi regionali (-80%). Ma questa è solo la punta dell’iceberg: dalle risposte degli editori emerge anche la preoccupazione per la crisi di liquidità dei clienti, che non riescono a pagare le fatture degli spot già messi in onda. Ritornare alla normalità non sarà facile, anche perché la sospensione degli eventi e dei concerti fa mancare un’altra fonte di finanziamento importante.
Superstation regine dell’informazione
Se il potenziamento degli spazi informativi è stato in media del 54% (per commerciali e comunitarie), sono le stazioni multiregionali ad aver puntato maggiormente sulle news, incrementandole del 70%, contro il 45% dei network nazionali. Uno sforzo organizzativo che ha spinto al massimo i motori di realtà grandi e piccole, che hanno investito risorse pur private del carburante della pubblicità.
Così si è proceduto ai tagli, soprattutto nelle grandi strutture
Se gli editori hanno congedato, in media, un collaboratore su tre (-34%), i risparmi sui costi del personale si sono fatti sentire soprattutto nelle aziende più strutturate: superstation (-48%) e network (-85%), mentre per le comunitarie l’impatto è stato dimezzato (-16%). Analogamente, la cassa integrazione è stata richiesta per un lavoratore su tre (-31%), con punte del -47% per le radio a copertura regionale, e ancor più elevate per superstation (-48%) e nazionali (-50%). A risentirne meno sono state le comunitarie (-18%), anche perché vengono gestite con meno di un dipendente (0,72): si basano sui collaboratori (5 in media) e soprattutto sul volontariato (7 persone, tra quelle interpellate).
L’energia? Un salasso, soprattutto per le comunitarie
Nel nostro paese si usano potenze di trasmissione troppo elevate. Un’eredità della guerra dei watt terminata nel 1990, che però pesa sempre di più sul budget degli editori (45%). Un valore che fotografa bene la situazione delle 22 radio commerciali regionali della nostra inchiesta (43%), che dispongono di una decina di ripetitori. Va un po’ meglio alle realtà più piccole (38%), con una media di quattro impianti, mentre per le comunitarie (con due frequenze) rappresenta un fardello pesante: assorbe il 64% delle risorse, anche perché i bilanci di queste strutture sono più magri (il 96% incassa meno di 50.000 euro) per i limiti di affollamento pubblicitario previsti dal tipo di concessione. Più le dimensioni aziendali crescono, invece, meno la componente energia è rilevante: si ferma al 25% per le multi regionali, al 20% per i network, a fronte di bilanci che, per entrambe queste categorie, possono superare il milione di euro.
Perché allora non ridurre le potenze di 3dB (dimezzandole), liberando risorse preziose in momenti come questi? L’idea, rilanciata in marzo da Lorenzo Belviso, editore delle emittenti pugliesi Radio Mi Piaci e Radio Popizz, consentirebbe risparmi superiori al 40%. Purtroppo la legge impedisce di ridurre la potenza (per alleggerire i costi, un editore ha detto di avere spento impianti minori dichiarando che sono in manutenzione o in avaria), ma in situazioni di emergenza, come quelle alle quali ci ha messo di fronte la pandemia, un dimezzamento generalizzato “da decreto” potrebbe fare comodo a molti. E a costi zero per lo stato. Apparentemente, il 52% degli editori interpellati non è interessato al “taglio” dei watt, ma si tratta di una media: dai dati emerge che i più favorevoli sono i network (100%), seguiti dalle comunitarie (61%) e dalle piccole commerciali (55%). In equilibrio le regionali (50%), mentre le superstation sono per lo status quo (80%).
Consumare meno, abbassando tutti
Su come ridurre le potenze, il 64% degli editori interpellati sarebbe favorevole solo se la riduzione fosse obbligatoria per tutti, escludendo gli impianti di potenza fino a 100 Watt (52%) impiegati di solito per illuminare le zone d’ombra nelle aree montane. Riguardo alla durata delle misure, la maggioranza (43%) preferirebbe che fosse per sempre.
Tante idee per ripartire. O l’etere verrebbe desertificato
Con 132 pareri, lunghi fino a 2000 caratteri, potemmo scrivere un libro. Dato che la risposta era libera, abbiamo individuato le tendenze trasformandole in proposte da indirizzare alle associazioni e al governo. Le radio commerciali si sentono mancare il terreno sotto i piedi. Dalle circa 5000 esistenti quando fu varata la legge Mammì, nel 1990, ora sono meno di mille: 967, come ci ha comunicato l’Agcom. Avrebbero bisogno di aiuti immediati, anche quelle che riceveranno una parte dei 50 milioni di euro (da dividere con le tv). Chiedono di ridiscutere le norme attuali (65%), erogando in fretta “soldi veri” e a fondo perduto (40%). Da distribuire “a pioggia” (11%), o a chi ha fatto informazione (6%) come alle piccole realtà locali (6%). Poi ci sono i sostegni indiretti: agevolazioni per l’energia elettrica (17%, quasi tutti con la richiesta di abbattere le tariffe del 50%); riduzione dei contributi per il personale assunto (12%); incentivi per chi fa pubblicità radiofonica (5%) ma riservati alle radio (il “decreto rilancio” li prevede anche per le tv, diluendo l’efficacia della misura); convogliare la pubblicità istituzionale sulle piccole realtà locali che si sentono abbandonate (5%). Qualcuno suggerisce ricette semplici, come tagliare le tasse (6%) e la burocrazia (5%). Altrimenti l’alternativa è che gran parte delle voci si spengano. Per sempre.
Cuts for five major broadcasters in Europe are on their way. While in Italy some radio stations are asking their listeners for help.
Austria: ORF is cutting outgoings
The director general of ORF, Alexander Wrabetz, has announced cuts of € 75 million are to be made by the end of 2021. These will be implemented in all areas in the company, from equipment to the cost of personnel. This year the broadcasting station is predicting losses that go from a minimum of € 28.6 million to up to € 54 million, should the worst scenario play out. The budgets allocated for major events will not be touched (€ 40 million for the rights of the European Football Championship and the Olympics). This is also the case for other investments which include digitalisation. Click here for more details from the article on Horizont.
France: Cost cutting plans for the public radio causes controversy
Cuts in the budget had already been decided on in 2018, in a period long before the present crisis. The Government had demanded a reduction of € 190 million in funds to public broadcasters (by 2022). € 20 million of spending cuts were destined for Radio France and in 2019 the CEO Sibyle Veil had prepared a plan that involved cutting 250 jobs. This provoked the longest strike in the history of public radio. The strike lasted 63 days (in total) during the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020. The trade unions consider the cuts unjustified and after a period of truce due to the Covid-19 crisis, the unrest could restart.
Germany: NDR raises the crossbar by € 60 million
The German broadcasting company Norddeutscher Rundfunk, NDR, wants to cut € 60 million more than the € 240 million that had been already decided on for the next four years.
The director, Joachim Knuth, is not going to reduce personnel but will not be employing new staff for 200 vacant positions. Furthermore, programmes and a series of events will be cancelled. Among those to go are crime series, entertainment and game shows on TV. Click here for more details from the article on Der Spiegel.
Italy: Onda d’Urto is banking on subscriptions
Radio Onda d’Urto in Brescia has launched a campaign for subscriptions to compensate for the missing revenues caused by the probable cancellation of the Festival of Radio Onda. The event, that is to be held in August, is the main source of finance for the broadcaster and even if it is not cancelled, it will be much smaller.
United Kingdom: £ 125 million have gone ‘missing’ at the BBC
The coffers of the public broadcasting station, BBC, are down £ 75 million due to
a delay: Listeners over seventy five were due to pay TV fees from June 1st, 2020, but this has been postponed to August 1st, 2020. This amount rises further because of losses caused by a drop in advertising and the postponement of a plan to reduce the workforce by cutting 450 jobs. According to the director general, Tony Hall, the cuts need to total £ 125 million. Upper management salaries will be frozen until August 2021 and a freeze will be put on all recruitment that is not indispensable. Other TV stations are not doing any better. ITV, free-to-air, has made a cut of £ 100 million to their budget and Channel 4 (a public broadcaster) has made a cut of £ 150 million. Further details can be found here.
Spain: SER cuts cost of personnel
Spains main network, Cadena SER, owned by the Prisa group (they own the daily newspaper El Pais and have business interests in 24 countries) is reducing the cost of labour. Of the personnel employed by the radio, 256 workers have been laid off until July 12th, 2020, (on unemployment benefit) while another 924 have a salary reduction of 10% until December 31st, 2020. Cadena Ser has 202 stations and the Prisa group also owns Cadena 100 and Los 40 Principales.
Click here for details in the article of El Español.
Everything will fade into past memories, but it is worth seeing some of the photographs taken in these last few months again. They include announcers and journalists broadcasting live from home, and courses for listeners on how to make their own radio programmes. It is also worth mentioning the vade mecums that have appeared in online magazines and on the websites of various associations. Their advice goes from how to choose equipment and software for a home studio to the procedures needed to protect radio station studios from contagion. There are even broadcasters that have put their studio disinfection procedures on show or have used their facemasks for self-promotion.
Radio stations broadcasting live from home
Belgium: While a lot of broadcasters, in spite of homely backgrounds, are narrowing the field of view with close-ups to give a professional touch, with the photographs of VRT Studio Brussel, a Flemish speaking public radio station, your eye tends to be drawn to the furnishings which reflect the personality of the announcer and goes from the large philodendron in the foreground to the bookcase on the right, and the door opening onto another room, making you wonder where it goes to.
Italy: When Roberto Zicchitella was conducting Radio3 Mondo live from his flat, his curious cat leapt onto his desk to sniff his tablet. The international news programme is on air on the public radio station, Rai Radio 3.
Spain: The SER network teaching listeners how to make a radio programme
The journalist, Pedro Blanco of Cadena Ser (a network of 202 radio stations we have spoken about in a previous article) on air with a radio workshop teaching listeners how to make their own programmes to then send to the radio station.
Canada: How to go on air from a distance
ARC, a Canadian alliance of community radio stations, explains how to equip yourself to produce your own show from home without excessive costs. They suggest a selection of hardware and software, some free of charge.
An antivirus guide for radio stations
This guide in the American magazine ‘Inside Radio’ lists 12 things to do in order to prevent contagion in radio stations.
And in Italy?
After disinfecting the Milan studios of Radio Millennium, the ‘ghostbusters’ pose for a photograph.
Radio Rock ‘designer’ masks:
Back in the golden years of free radio, listeners used to stick adhesives of their favourite radio stations onto their cars. Today the Roman station, Radio Rock, has made face masks with their own logos on them. Will this become a fashion with other stations?
The ‘Relaunch Decree’, published late in the evening on May 19th, 2020, contained a wonderful surprise. The radio and TV stations, that have been broadcasting information on the pandemic, will be receiving € 50 million (in the first draft it was 20 million, which became 40 after protests made by the broadcasting associations). The allocation of the funds will be according to a points system, which is used by the fund that has the task to promote pluralism and innovation of the media. The only obligation for the broadcasters is to put government information campaigns on air during the Covid-19 health crisis. In addition, in order to relaunch advertising (that saw a fall of up to 80%) companies that buy radio and TV spots will be able to deduct 50% off their taxes (€ 20 million have been allocated, but considering that the deduction has been extended to national TV stations, the effectiveness of this measure will be largely diminished).
More advantages and simpler procedures
The decree includes other concessions for businesses which the broadcasting stations will be able to benefit from. For example, a tax credit of 60% on rents in March, April and May 2020 (for both studios and repeater stations) if revenues are not over € 5 million and there is a drop of 50% in turnover compared to the same period last year. There is also a postponement of tax deadlines from April 16th to May 16th, 2020, for companies with a fall in turnover of at least 33% in the months of March and April 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. Furthermore, companies will not be obliged to pay IRAP (Italian Regional Production Tax) in June 2020 (balance and advance payment for the following year) if turnover is not over € 250 million. The procedures for applying for furloughing of staff and for having a reduction in the electricity bills will be simplified. Some expenses (cost of energy transport, electricity meter management and general expenses) will be reduced for three months (May to July 2020), but this will not affect energy consumed, which would have been welcomed by the associations.