The New Zealand Government is planning to disestablish public broadcasters (radio and television) and create a new public media entity in order to cut operating costs. The annual funding (25 million US dollars) primarily supports Radio New Zealand, whereas the television (TNZ) counts on advertising revenue. An advisory group is now working to create a new model with new funding options, such as introducing a fee and working on sponsorships (in addition to the actual funding).
Commercial TV crisis
The public radio and television sector is suffering, but also the commercial broadcasting is experiencing difficulties. The online giants, such as Google and Facebook, are draining resources from the advertising market, also affecting the private sector: MediaWorks, a New Zealand-based television, radio and interactive media company entirely owned by an American company, has recently put some of its channels up for sale: Three, Bravo and Three Life. This group also owns 9 national radio brands transmitted on 190 frequencies.
Follow the services of Jane Patterson, political editor of Radio New Zealand here & here Find a complete list of frequencies and repeaters on FMList.
SwissInfo.ch –the international unit of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR)– published a collection of historical photos and recordings on its website to commemorate 70 years of broadcasting. The partners of the “The Sounds of…” project are the international services of Canada, Poland, Romania and Czech Republic whose journalists provided videos to explain how they did their work. Sounds and images that enable to go back in time – when the sounds were disturbed by atmospheric noises and people were smoking cigarettes in their offices.
70 years of shortwave broadcastings
Switzerland’s international service started in 1935, called the SOC (Short Wave Swiss Service): in those days these bands represented the only effective way for radio to travel long distance, allowing to receive news from foreign countries. In 1989, when the Cold War came to an end and propaganda was no longer necessary, the governments started trying to cut the high broadcasting costs (being able to reach the whole world needs transmitters up to hundreds of kW and huge antennas). Operators have reacted in different ways, like turning off some frequencies, reducing the languages offered or changing the broadcastings method.
Optimism in technological transitions
Switzerland, for its part, has turned off the high energy-consuming transmitters and continued to broadcast programs via satellite and – since 1999 – via internet, making it one of the first online radio stations. The editorial staff has been extended adding new languages like Chinese, Japanese and Russian and new audio and video contents. This is the reason why the programme changed its name to Swiss Radio International.
Since 2002 every AM broadcaster in the United States is allowed to broadcast digitally by using HD Radio – a system that permits spreading to 3 thematic channels and provides services, such as the visualisation of songs’ or artists’ names (in addition to the analogue signal – still receivable by traditional receivers). However, this system can’t always be used; in fact, the digital signal occupies 40 kHz of the band – compared to the standard frequency range of 20 kHz – making digital broadcasting not possible if other radio stations are operatingon nearby frequencies.
Since listening to AM stations has become difficult due to the rising of radio electric interferences – caused by increasing proliferation of electronic devices- FCC is trying to promote and increase AM stations ratings by proposing broadcasters to switch to all digital broadcasting, meeting the standards set by the regulations (not exceeding 20 kHz) and thus minimising interferences. This is just one of the various initiatives taken by the American regulator almost one hundred years from the first radio transmission in the US: the Agency has also allowed the opening of some new broadcasting facilities.
Today, only one AM station is all digital
Today just one broadcaster in the US is allowed to operate all digital on AM. It is WWFD – a broadcaster from Frederick, Maryland (70 km from Washington). Since 16th July, 2019 this broadcaster – better known as The Gamut – transmits its digital-only AM signal on 820 kHz. Additionally, the station transmit its digital signal on 103.5 MHz in HD (a standard that allows to transmit up to four channels on the same frequency). Today -in the United States – 4,580 broadcaster are operating on AM and 10,850 on FM, divided in commercial (6,728) and non-commercial (4,122). In total there are 20,342 FM transmitters. You can find the complete list on FMList.
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With its 350 meters of height the Lotus Tower is the highest transmission structure in South Asia. The shape is inspired by the lotus flower, which in Sri Lankan culture symbolises purity: a thin, green stem with petals that change color thanks to a play of light. Under construction since 2012, it was opened on 16 September 2019 to ease a cost controversy ($ 104 million); the project was funded largely by the Chinese government within the scope of the Belt and Road project. The platform being 245 meters high, provides visitors with a panoramic view of the capital, Colombo.
Five floors of attractions and two of transmissions
The bud of the lotus flower conceals a seven-story structure: the first two host 35 FM radio stations, 50 TV stations broadcasting on DVB T2 and 20 telecommunication service providers. The other floors contain a museum, supermarkets, a revolving restaurant, banquet- & conference rooms and lastly a 1000-seat auditorium. The sixth floor is reserved for six exclusive suites.